Stop the choice on specific method of contraception should be depending on individual characteristics of body. Radicals are most reliable, but not all are suitable. We have compiled top 9 most popular contraceptives in accordance with degree of their reliability in protection against unwanted pregnancy.
Sterilization – 99.9%
For men, it is represented by vasectomy, for women – by tubal ligation. In terms of reliability, only complete rejection of sexual activity can be compared with these surgical procedures.
After ligation of fallopian tubes, woman’s ability to become pregnant doesn`t recover. At the same time, there remains risk of ectopic pregnancy. Sterilization is recommended for those who already have several children or suffer from disease that is included in list of medical contraindications for pregnancy.
Oral contraceptives – 99.7%
They are represented by hormonal pills that “lull” woman’s ovaries. These drugs suppress ovulation, thin uterine endometrium, and thicken mucus in cervix, which interferes with penetration of sperm. Oral contraceptives reduce blood loss during menstruation, improve condition of skin and hair, eliminate PMS, reduce duration of menstruation and reduce pain during this period.
Only gynecologist should select hormonal pills, otherwise it wouldn`t be possible to ensure maximum effectiveness of these drugs and minimize risk of side effects.
Intrauterine contraception – 99.2-99.8%
It is represented by intrauterine device and intrauterine hormonal system. Both are inserted directly into uterine cavity. They act in different ways. The first prevents attachment of fertilized egg to walls of organ. The second one delivers hormone dosed, which contributes to thickening of cervical mucus, suppression of sperm motility and thinning of inner layer of uterine cavity.
Intrauterine hormonal system is installed for 5 years. If necessary, you can remove it earlier.
Hormonal implants and injections – 90-99%
Act on principle of hormonal tablets. Difference is that hormone is injected intramuscularly into body. Injections are usually given every 3 months. Hormonal implant provides long-term effect: it is installed for 5 years. It`s introduced to women in upper part of arm. Use of such methods threatens to cause unpleasant side effects. Among them are irregular bleeding, abnormal discharge, headache, weight gain, and appearance of acne.
Hormone patch and ring – 92%
First remedy sticks to skin. It should be worn for first 7 days from start of menstrual cycle. Woman must enter hormonal ring into her vagina herself. This must be done from 1st to 5th day of menstrual cycle. After 3 weeks, remove. Both tools are effective only subject to clear scheme.
Barrier methods: condom, diaphragm, cap, sponge – 84-85%
Condom is the only remedy that provides protection not only against pregnancy, but also against any infections. However, it has significant drawback – it can be torn apart at wrong time.
Diaphragm, cap and sponge are installed in vagina immediately before sexual intercourse. Like condom, they can cause discomfort and decrease sensitivity.
Calendar method – 80%
Its essence is that woman calculates days of ovulation and during this period refrains from sexual contact or uses other means of contraception. Calendar method is suitable only for women with regular menstrual cycle.
Interrupted sexual intercourse (ISI) – 73%
For this method to work, man must have time to remove penis from vagina in time. However, even strict adherence to this rule doesn`t exclude possibility of pregnancy, because small amount of seminal fluid can be released during intercourse. ISI can lead to problems with potency and ejaculation. It also threatens development of prostatitis in men. For women, this method doesn`t allow to relax and prevents receipt of orgasm.
Spermicides – 71%
These include vaginal suppositories, creams, tablets, capsules. Usually in their composition they have special substance that damages sperm. Woman should use these drugs before each sexual intercourse.
Main side effects of spermicides are irritation, inflammation of vaginal mucosa, appearance of thrush.
If woman becomes pregnant while using these drugs, doctors most often recommend abortion. All due to high risk of serious pathologies in fetus.